Institute of Public Administration (TIPA)
Institute of Public Administration (TIPA)
Following the recommendations made by the European Union in an argumentative way for the establishment of a specialized training institution, directions and priorities in the field of training were suggested. ITAP was located in Tirana and had no branches in the districts. His competence ensures the professional practice of civil servants. This vocational training included:
a. Training in the probationary period;
b. Career development training;
c. Training for professional adaptation, in cases of changing job requirements;
ç. Special character training for performing particular tasks;
d. Training for the development of professional knowledge;
The following bodies were foreseen for his direction:
a. Director of the institute
b. Advisory Board.
TIPA has participated in various seminars and training courses inside and outside the country. They have been trained on public administration management quality issues, drafting curricula based on competencies, human resource management, and senior officials’ role in terms of the law on civil servants. In the absence of experience and providing the best possible orientations in these definitions, the Institute has consulted with the European Institute of Public Administration and the respective fields’ advisors at the Department of Public Administration.
To concretize in the most appropriate way the issues related to the status, purpose, and manner of functioning of the Institute, its organization, and administration, the Institute’s regulation was drafted. The management of human resources, which in itself includes:
– implementation of the law on civil service
-strengthening the Department of Public Administration
-support for the establishment of TIPA (public administration training institute).
Public Administration employees should have the appropriate knowledge and skills depending on the different tasks and functions. The prerequisite for a well-trained system was the cooperation and consultation with the Advisory Board to better determine the training and design needs. Concrete training programs. Year after year, TIPA has revised and enriched its curricula and hired trainers as local, part of public administration employees or has recruited trainers outside this administration and cooperated with foreign trainers to train senior civil servants. Leading. Thus, in 2014, 2116 civil servants were trained by participating in 86 training courses for illustration. The number of participants in training reached 2444 civil servants in the following year, and the number of times again increased to 126. During the last year, 2012, the training courses reached 209, and 4066 civil servants were provided with the training.
All civil servants have benefited from the general practice, introductory to the state administration in the first year of work, that of the probationary period. According to the job profile and training requirements from the institutions where the employees are employed, the civil servants are offered training cycles throughout the year, grouped according to the concrete work categories they perform.
The activity of DoPA in the processes of European integration of Albania
Albania has already received EU membership status. Albania applied for EU membership in April 2009, and the Commission is ready to prepare an opinion on this application as soon as requested by the Council. The Stabilization and Association Agreement (SAA) between Albania and the EU entered in April 2009, and the Interim Agreement has been in power since December 2006. Public administration is one of the most criticized sectors in all Commission reports, and the main criticism is in implementing the civil service law in practice. The fact is that this law on paper is good, but policymakers ignore its performance. The 2009 report, which coincides with the entry into force of the SAA and the membership application, states that this law’s implementation remains problematic.
The politicization of public administration remains a matter of concern, and the most troubling aspect is the way civil servants are recruited. Competition is often unmeritocratic. The phenomenon of appointments in public administration based on temporary contracts is also a matter of concern. The 2007 report notes that political appointments to senior and middle management positions are in many cases made in violation of civil service law. The 2008 report reiterates that civil servants’ frequent replacements undermine the independence of the civil service and increase the likelihood of bribery by public officials.
Although the European Commission has made recommendations every year on this issue, it isn’t easy to see progress towards are-establishing a genuine civil service. The 2009 report notes that political appointments and replacements of public administration officials have continued, albeit to a lesser extent. It is worth mentioning here that the Progress Reports of 2007, 2008, and 2009 conclude with more or less the same findings and recommendations that “further progress is needed to have an independent civil service, unaffected by political, meritocratic and professional interference.”
The Department of Public Administration (DPA), as the leading institution responsible for overseeing and enforcing civil service legislation, continues to play a weak role in terms of protecting and promoting civil service principles. As an organized institution within the Ministry of Interior, DOPA finds it difficult to impose its policies on senior administration institutions to enforce civil service law. Based on the above reasons, the 2009 report reminds the Albanian authorities that “the lack of transparency and accountability in appointments remains a key European Partnership priority that needs to be addressed.” Albania applied for EU membership in April 2009.
The 2009-2010 Enlargement Strategy, as well as the 2009 Progress Report, acknowledge that Albania has made progress on critical political reforms and economic criteria, highlighting the need “to make progress, in particular about the rule of law and in the fight against corruption, as well as the proper functioning of state institutions, especially the independence of the judiciary. Administrative and law enforcement capacities require further strengthening. These documents also consider strengthening administrative capacity “an important challenge for enlargement countries that must be addressed.”
In this particular context, the Albanian Government adopted in 2009 the Cross-cutting Strategy for Public Administration Reforms 2009-2013, known as SNAP. Together with the analysis and recognition of “problems” in civil service reform and law enforcement, SNRAP establishes a professional, sustainable, effective civil service and responsibility as one of its three strategic objectives.
a) strengthening the unity and homogeneity of the civil service employment regime;
b) strengthening the principle of merit in recruitment;
c) increasing mobility and career development within the civil service,
d) improving the training system. In the framework of the implementation of SNRAP, the Department of Public Administration (DPA), under the minister of Interior’s auspices, requested the assistance of SIGMA to prepare a conceived document or policy for “A new civil service law in Albania.”
This document completed this request. The concept paper is the first step to identify the key issues and appropriate solutions for Albania’s new civil service law and civil service system. These issues and solutions are provided in proposals that will be thoroughly discussed and consulted by DoPA and the Government with all relevant stakeholders such as civil servants, politicians, civil society, and international partners. If approved, they will also serve to guide the process of drafting a new civil service bill.
Conclusions and recommendations
The proper functioning of the public administration is insisted on, not only because international mechanisms, mainly those of EU integration, require one, but also because it implies higher efficiency in providing services or policies to the public in Albania and at the same time is an element of a democratic state. Good functioning undoubtedly presupposes many factors, including meritocracy and the frequent immutability in the working relations of human resources in public administration. Albanian legislation needs to be reviewed to be aligned with EU legislation as much as possible for this essential element for the rule of law in Albania.
There have been numerous political debates regarding the entry into force of Law No. 152/2013 on a civil servant’s status, but finally, it entered into force on May 5, 2014. Beyond the political and problematic debates that were approached about the law’s constitutionality, we can say that this law increases the guarantee of civil servants’ status, mainly when we talk about the range of ministerial administrations.
First, the Albanian state must define quite clearly the meaning of the term “public servant.” This definition will guide the legislation on regulating labor relations in the PU administration.